Timeline of Eriador

First Age
Early F._A. The ancestors of the Beffraen, then indistinguishable
from other Drúedain, settle around the
Midgewater Marshes and the Nîn-in-Eilph (S.

Mid F.A. The proto-Beffraen flee south westwards
towards the coasts when several clans of another
people, the Edain, migrate into central Eriador over
the Misty Mountains. Three of the Adan tribes
eventually migrate into Beleriand; in time they sail
to Númenor and become the Dúnedain.

Late F.A. Arhûnadan peoples enter Eriador from the
southeast. Some move on to Beleriand, while others
settle in central and southern Eriador. Later, a Daen
(Dunnish) people, the Mebion Bron, migrate into
Enedhwaith. Some are enslaved and eventually
assimilated by the proto-Eriadorans.

End of F.A The War of Wrath; the Host of the Valar
attacks Morgoth’s stronghold; most of Beleriand
founders and falls into the sea; fragments of
Ossiriand (Q. “Lindon”) remain. The Iron Mountains
are destroyed and replaced by the Bay of
Forochel and a surrounding tundra plain.

I Founding of the Elven Realm of Lindon by Gilgalad,
High King of the Noldor. The Elves establish
a policy of minimal contact with the mannish
population of Eriador.

32 The island Kingdom of Númenor (Anadûnê) is
founded by Adan veterans of the War of Wrath, led
by Elros Tar-Minyatur.

c. 32 – c. 300 The Hillmen, a group of the Mebion
Bron, take up their ancestral homeland. The
remaining Edain, Arhûnedain, and Mebion Bron
peoples sort themselves out into tribal states. These
Eriadorans now become a distinct independent
culture; the clans alone the Gwathló tend to have
more Daen ancestry, while those farther north tend
to be taller and blonder. Durin’s Folk take on the
maintenance of the Eriadoran trade routes, and seek
to neutralize any political threat from the
Eriadorans by keeping a monopoly of the manufacture
of iron and steel weapons,

ca. 400 The early Eriadorans reach an advanced bronze
age culture in the woods of central Cardolan.

600 Númenórean explorers first sail to Middle-earth
(Endor). Mornerim peoples from northern Endor
migrate into the Northern Waste, eventually
reaching the Bay of Forochel and becoming the

617 The first Númenórean ships explore the coasts of
Saralainn while en route to the Grey Haven’s.

750 Noldo Elves found the realm of Hollin in
Eregion. They build three towns along the north
bank of the Glanduin over the next two centuries.

777 Anardil Aldarion, then Crown Prince of
Númenor, begins the construction of Vinyalondë
(S. “New Haven”) on the northern side of the
mouth of the Gwathló.

880 Aldarion erects a watch tower at a small Eriadoran
village on the upper Gwathló, near the site of a
Dwarven ferry. This is the traditional date of the
founding of Tharbad. There, he meets with
Celeborn and Galadriel of Eregion.

ca. 1000 The Maia Sauron returns to Middle-earth
and slips into Mordor.

1078 After the retirement of Aldarion, Tar-Ancalimë,
the new Queen of Númenor, ignores her father’s
wishes and abandons Vinyalondë after it is damaged
by a severe hurricane. Númenórean trade increases
regardless of the Queen’s desires.

ca. 1100-1600 Golden Age of the Eriadoran Kingdoms
in southern Eriador. Their decline begins
when Sauron increases his influence in the region.

1200-1800 Númenor founds colonies on all the
coasts of Endor.

1312 Foundation of a Troll Kingdom in Enedhwaith.
It is secretly controlled by Sauron, who needs a
secure military base in Eriador in case his plans to
conquer the Elves through magic fail. The
Eriadorans learn to cope with it.

ca. 1590 Elven smiths in Eregion complete the Rings
of Power.

ca. 1600 Sauron secretly forges the One Ruling Ring
in Mordor.

1644 Tar-Minastir, while still Crown Prince, begins
reconstruction of the ruins of Vinyalondë. He
names the new port Lond Daer Enedh (S. “Great
Middle Haven”).

1693-1701 War between the Elves and Sauron.
Within six years, Sauron has ravaged Eregion and
overrun most of Eriador. The King of Durin’s Folk
closes Khazad-dûm. Elrond leads refugees from
Eregion north to found Rivendell. The Eriadorans
of the Pinnath Ceren hold out, as does the
Númenórean garrison in the fortress at Lond Daer.
The Brerion, a group descended from the Mebrion
Bron, flees north to eventually become the Breelanders.

1700 Tar-Minastir leads a Númenórean army that
comes to the aid of the Elves. His Captain,
Pharconatar, uses the fleet in brilliant amphibious
operations along the Gwathló that contribute greatly
to the utter destruction of Sauron’s forces. Eriador
and Enedhwaith are devastated. The Ents virtually
abandon the forests west of the Misty Mountains.

1793 Pharconatar begins the construction of
as a Númenórean colony and is accepted as Protector
by most of the petty kings of the Eriadorans.

I9I4-I943 Southern Eriadorans unite to oppose the
extensive lumbering undertaken by the
Númenóreans to construct the great fleet of Tar-
Ciryatan. This conflict degenerates into a guerrilla
war, in which much of Saralainn is deforested. First
use of Daen (Dunnish) mercenaries by the
Númenórean colonists. They are settled along the
Gwathló; these settlements and increased
Númenórean domination begin the gradual division
between the cultural traditions of the common
Eriadorans and the Eriedain or Northmen. The first
Northmen flee east of the Misty Mountains to
become the base population of Rhovanion.

ca. 2000 Greed and envy begin to take hold in
Númenor; Kings no longer take Elven names or
surrender their Sceptre to healthy heirs before death.
Distressed by the increased materialism in their
native isle, some of the most traditional of the
Númenóreans begin emigrating, settling primarily in
the Emyn Uial (S. “Twilight Hills”) region around
Lake Evendim. Tharbad is their primary entrepot,
and the city begins to prosper.

ca. 2251 The nine Nazgûl, or Ringwraiths, first appear
in various nations of Endor. Northwestern Endor
has no native leaders worthy of Sauron’s attention
and thus none of the lords of men enslaved by the
rings are from Eriador.

2350 Pelargir is founded and becomes the chief haven
for the increasing emigration of the Faithful
Númenóreans. The Emyn Uial, politically shielded
by Gil-galad’s Elvish Kingdom, remains a center for
the more pious and radical of the Faithful. Tharbad
now falls under the control of more conventional
Númenórean colonists.

ca.2500-2600 Second Revolt of the Eriadorans.
Pursuing Tar-Telemmaitë’s desire for mithril, the
Númenóreans move into the hills and downs of
Cardolan, provoking the natives. Númenórean
sorcerers successfully drive the Huorns of Cardolan
into the Old Forest and the Rast Vorn, devastating
the Beffraen. This clears the way for a full scale
conflict with the Eriadorans.
These “Forest Wars” are the most destructive of
the Eriadoran conflicts and are largely responsible
for the later treeless condition of Cardolan. They
also duplicate the immigrations and cultural
divisions caused by the earlier wars. Most of the
Dúnadan principalities in Cardolan are founded in
their aftermath.

2511 Lond Daer seriously damaged in a great hurricane
and is never fully restored.

3261-3262 King Ar-Pharazôn (the Golden) of
Númenor lands at Umbar and marches on Mordor.
Sauron surrenders and is taken in chains to
Númenor. He succeeds in seducing the King and
many Númenóreans to evil ways.

3262-3310 Sauron convinces Ar-Pharaz6n that the
Ban of the Valar is a ruse to protect the Elven
“Lands of Immortality” from Mannish invasion. He
contends that Aman (the Undying Lands) will
confer immortality on any resident. The Faithful are
prosecuted and many are sacrificed to the powers of

3310-3319 The Great Armament of Númenor results
in the creation of the greatest fleet and army ever
assembled by Men. Amandil, last lord of Andunië,
tries to reach Valinor by ship to appeal to the Valar,
When he is lost, his son Elendil becomes leader of
the Faithful.

3319 Ar-Pharazôn invades Valinor and is destroyed by
Eru. The Downfall of Númenor follows, as the
continent is broken and cast beneath the seas. Lond
Daer is destroyed when tidal waves sweep over the
shorelands of Eriador. Elendil and his sons, Isildur
and Anarion, escape with the remaining Faithful.
Sauron is able to regather his spirit in Mordor.

3320 The two Realms in Exile, Arnor and Gondor,
are founded by the Faithful. Elendil is made High
King. He claims Rhudaur as part of Arnor, and the
Hillmen are overawed and agree.

3325-3341 Religious strife among the Daen Coentis
of the White Mountains leads to Dunnish migration
into Enedwaith and Rhudaur.

3430 The Last Alliance of Men and Elves is formed to
answer Sauron’s attack on Gondor.

3430-3441 The Last Alliance of Elves and Men
overcomes Sauron. The Daen Coentis are cursed by
Isildur. King Gil-galad of Lindon and King Elendil
perish, and Sauron passes into shadow with his
Nazgûl. Isildur becomes King of Arnor and Gondor
and holds the One Ring.

1-500 Arnor fails to recover from its losses in the War
of the Last Alliance; many of Elendil’s plans for
expanding the road system and settlements are

2 Disaster of the Gladden Fields; Isildur is slain by
Orcs and loses the One Ring of Power in the

4-10 First Hillman Rebellion against Arnor ends in a
compromise settlement.

164-166 Mong-Finn’s Rebellion in Rhudaur. The
Vaernil (Crown Prince) Eldacar defeats him and
founds the citadel at Cameth Brin.

ca. 200-400 A new wave of Dunnish migration to
Eriador follows the sundering and downfall of the
Daen Coentis realm in the White Mountains. The
Dunlendings become the native population of that
part of Enedhwaith which is now renamed
Dunfearan, or Dunland. Some also migrate into
Eriador, where they form a base peasant population
in Rhudaur and the lowest economic class in the
Gwathló basin.

250-850 Administration of Arnor gradually moved
from Annúminas to Fornost, on the North Downs.

ca. 400 Arnorian rangers under the Vaernil Tarcil
explore north far into Forochel and beyond and
over the Angirith Pass into the Grey Mountains.

ca. 500 First notable Easterling Wars with Gondor.
Eriedain cavalry first created and many of the clans
involved migrate eastward into Rhovanion in
conjunction with Gondorian military ventures.
Some distinct groups of Eriedain, like the Rivermen,
still maintain independent “Northman” cultures in
Arnor. King Tarcil of Arnor campaigns against the
Orcs of Gundabad and Goblin-gate and gains
regular access over the Angirith (S. “Iron Pass”) at
the northern end of the Misty Mountains, building
roads later used by the Witch-king. Arnorian
outposts are founded near Esgaroth in Wilderland.

ca. 600-860 Increasing tensions are noted between the
lords of northern Arnor and their more worldly
kinsmen in the southern areas of the Kingdom. The
northeastern frontier of Arnor is withdrawn to the
edge of the En Eredoriath, with Eldanar Castle as
the primary citadel.

652 King Valandur of Arnor slain during a revolt of
the Hillmen of the eastern marches.

861 Death of Eärendur of Arnor, who divides his
realm among his three sons. Founding of the Sister
Kingdoms Of Arthedain, Cardolan, and Rhudaur.
The Palantir of Annúminas is moved to Fornost.
Thorondur the Magnificent ascends the throne as
the first King of Cardolan.

870-930 Explorations of Amlaith, first King of
Arthedain. To avoid the tariffs of Thorondur, he
attempts to gain new trade routes. His reopening of
the Angirith, a successful duplication of the feats of
King Tarcil, results in military trade missions as far
east as Dorwinion and maps that the Arthedain will
use for the next thousand years. The unwillingness
of the Elves of Lindon to cooperate dooms
Amlaith’s plans to build a western port for seaborne
trade with Gondor, An attempt to build a
road and port north of Lindon in the Forodwaith
runs afoul of the weather and results only in limited
contacts and treaties with the Lossoth. Arthedain’s
dependence on Tharbad for trade will bind its
policy and prosperity throughout the life of the

949-950 Aldarion of Rhudaur, the last of Eärendur’s
sons, attempts to reunite Arnor. The war ends in a
few skirmishes, but it is the first slaying of
Dúnedain by Dúnedain in the north.

ca. 1000 Sauron stirs once again. The Wizards (Istari)
are sent from Aman to Middle-earth.

1050 First mention of the Hobbits in Elven records.
1084-1092 Arthedain, Cardolan, and Rhudaur
undertake a more serious quarrel over Amon Sûl and
its Palantir.

1100 The Istari and the Eldar discover that a Dark
Power, known only as “the Necromancer,” has built
a stronghold at Dol Guldur, in Greenwood the
Great, which eventually becomes known as
Mirkwood. Attempts to eliminate the horror involve
Arthadan adventurers and Elvish and Gondorian
troops; they seem successful, but the area is tainted
and impossible to garrison. The Necromancer
eventually reappears.

1100-1200 Cardolan reaches its peak of prosperity
under the reign of its fourth King, Tarandil, who
introduces large scale sheep herding. Tharbad
thrives as a center of trade and manufacture,

ca. 1100 Harfoot Hobbits enter Eriador; Fallohides
and Stoors soon follow within fifty years. The
Harfoots settle throughout the Gwathló basin.

1150 Fallohides follow Harfoots into Eriador; Stoors
enter Rhudaur and settle in the Angle, between the
rivers Bruinen and Mitheithel.

1197 King Calimendil of Cardolan attempts to
conquer Rhudaur, which has fallen under the rule of
a Hillman usurper.

1235 Disaster of Cameth Brin. Calimendil, besieging
the capitol of Rhudaur, is surprised by an Orcish
army from Gundabad. The professional forces of
Cardolan cut their way out with heavy losses, but
Calimendil, his sons, and all of the ruling Barons of
Cardolan are slain when the Orcs capture the
exposed Royal Pavilion.

1235-1248 The Time of Troubles in Cardolan. Civil
war on national and baronial levels, foreign intervention,
raids from Rhudaur. A Diet of Thalion
summoned by the Wise elects Tarcil from among
many claimants to the throne in 1258.

1276 The Witch-king, later better known as the Lord
of the Nazgûl, establishes his realm in Angmar.
Sauron, now increasing in power and establishing
his network of Dark Priests and spies throughout
Endor, has determined that the divided northern
Dúnedain can be more easily destroyed than their
southern counterparts.

1284-1287 Arthedain and Cardolan war over possession
of Amon Sûl. Minalcar establishes himself as
regent of Cardolan when his legitimate half-brother
Tarastor proves ineffective as a military leader.

ca. 1300 The Hobbits move westward, many
around Bree. The Stoors become well established in
the Angle and the abandoned lands of Eregion.

130I-1350 Rhudaur gradually falls under the
Shadow, Finally, Hillmen and Dunmen allied with
the Witch-king seize control.

1332 Death of Tarastor, deemed to be the last of the
true line of Isildur in Cardolan. Minalcar, crowned
as King, accepts Argeleb of Arthedain’s claims to the
High Kingship of Arnor in 1349 and is promised

1352-1359 First Northern War pits Arthedain and
Cardolan versus Rhudaur and Angmar.

1356 Argeleb I of Arthedain is killed in battle.

1408-14I0 Second Northern War. King Arveleg of
Arthedain is killed in the fighting in the Weather
Hills; Amon Sûl is besieged and falls, though its
Palantir is saved. King Ostoher of Cardolan and his
sons fall in battle on Tyrn Gorthad. With Elvish
help, the Arthedain gathered at Fornost beat back
the barbarians.

1409-1500 Clans of Stoors from southern Eriador
head east and recross the Misty Mountains, settling
by the Gladden Fields of the Anduin Valley.

1412 Princess Nirnadel of Cardolan and the Regent,
Nimhir, are slain in an unsuccessful coup. Civil war
in Cardolan.

1414 Annael of Fëotar recognized as Canotar (S.
“High Commander”) of Cardolan with nominal
powers equal to the Kings.

1432-1448 A civil war, the Kin-strife, erupts and
divides Gondor.

1503 Gordaigh, a Dunnish adventurer, establishes the
Kingdom of Saralainn. Most of the remaining
baronies and other successor states declare their
independence of the Realm of Cardolan soon
thereafter. The lands east of the River Nen-i-Sûl
and north of Fëotar are abandoned.

1601 Year One of the Shire Reckoning. In a bold
move, Argeleb II grants to the Hobbits the Shire in
southern Arthedain.

1630 Most of the remaining Stoors leave Rhudaur to
join their brethren in the Shire.

1635-1636 During winter, the Great Plague sweeps
into Rhovanion from the East.

1636-37 The Great Plague devastates Gondor and
then strikes Eriador. The Hobbits suffer greatly, but
are able to maintain their new homelands in the
Shire. There are fewer fatalities overall in the North,
but the Plague causes enough disruption to overturn
the two centuries of gradual recovery in Cardolan.

1637 The Domain of the Warlord founded in

1645-1666 The Hillman Revolt in Rhudaur. It ends
with a Hillman Targ-Arm on the throne in Cameth
Brin, secretly under the control of the Witch-king.

1689-98 Rogrog’s War. The Hillmen are broken by a
massive force of Orcs and Trolls. They dwindle in
numbers thereafter and eventually disappear as a

ca. 1700 The few remaining Dúnedain of Cardolan
abandon their homelands; equal numbers go to
Arthedain and Gondor. Orcs and Wolves control
the Mintyrnath highlands. The Cardolani Commons
slowly migrate southward, but some resettle in
fortified villages on or near the Gwathló.

ca. 1800 The increasingly severe winters gradually force
a slow southern migration of much of the remaining
peasant population of Eriador.

1856-99 Easterlings called the “Wainriders” invade
Rhovanion, driving Gondor’s armies out of the
southern plains. A Wainrider kingdom is established.

1940 Arthedain and Gondor form an alliance against
the Witch-king; Prince Arvedui marries Gondor’s
Princess Firiel.

1944 Gondor battles the Wainriders in her eastern
provinces; King Ondoher and his sons fall in battle.
1945 Prince Arvedui’s claim to the throne of Gondor
is denied.

1973-75 The Third Northern War. In late 1974
Arthedain falls to the Witch-king, and King
Arvedui flees, first to the Blue Mountains, then to
Forochel, with two Palantíri. Most of the Arthedain
of the North Downs and the Twilight Hills flee
south and westward. An army led by Eärnur of
Gondor sails to Lindon. In early spring of 1975
Cirdan’s Elves of Lindon, Glorfindel’s Elves of
Rivendell, and Eärnur’s Men of Gondor combine to
defeat the Angmarim at the Battle of Annúminas,
but the Witch-king escapes. In March, Arvedui and
his men are drowned; the two Northern Palantíri are
lost at sea.

1975-1985 Most of the surviving Arthedain emigrate
to Gondor. Only the Bree and Shire folk are able to
refound their homeland’s.

1976 Aranarth, the last Arthadan Crown-prince, takes
the title “Chieftain of the Dúnedain,” founding the
Rangers of the North, Elrond keeps the Arthadan
heirlooms at Rivendell.

1979 Bucca of the Marish becomes the first Thain of
the Shire.

1980-81 The Dwarves mining for mithril beneath the
redhorn unleash a Balrog. He slays two of their
Kings and drives them from Khazad-dûm. Many
Dwarves become refugees in Eriador. The city
becomes known as Moria and is a haven for evil

1999 Foundation of the Dwarven city under Erebor in
Rhovanion. Most of the survivors of Durin’s Folk
go there. A small colony stays with the Blue
Mountain Dwarves.

2050 King Eärnur of Gondor is slain by the Nazgûl.
He has no heir, and the Stewards who rule Gondor
thereafter have no interest in the North.

2052 After demolishing most of the remaining forts in
central Cardolan, the Gondorian garrison in
Tharbad is withdrawn. Most of the better folk go
with them. The Cantons of Fëotar are the strongest
of the petty states along the Gwathló.

2063 Gandalf goes to Dol Guldur but cannot discover
the identity of the evil force residing there.

2116 The capitol of Saralainn is removed from Sudúri
to Isenmouth.

2340 The thirteenth Thain, Isumbras, is first of the
Took clan to rule the Shire.

2463 The White Council is formed and begins to
meet regularly; it includes Saruman and Gandalf.

2480 Orcs under an ambitious new lord bar the passes
over the Misty Mountains. It takes twenty years of
effort for the Dwarves and Elves to reopen them.

2510 The Balchoth devastate northern Gondor, and
some invade Dunland, Eorl the Young helps
Gondor defeat them and is given the Kingdom of
Rohan in time to take Dunnish pressure off the
Eriadorans of the Gwathló Settlements.

2670 Tobold grows pipeweed in Southfarthing; pipesmoking
is the rage among Hobbits in the Shire.

2720-2750 Orcs invade Cardolan, slaying or driving
off most of the remaining Eriadorans. An attack on
Tharbad fails, and the Orcs drift away due to lack
of plunder. Fëotar ceases to exist as a united realm,
and Sudúri becomes the political center of the
Gwathló settlements. Similar Orcish raids in the
north devastate Bree-land, but Gandalf aids in a
counterattack and the goblins are driven back

2747 Bandobras Took leads the Hobbits against an
Orc-tribe invading the Northfarthing; Rangers assist
the Hobbits, and the Orcs are defeated at the Battle
of Greenfields.
2758-59 Gondor and Rohan attacked from all sides.
Haradaic Corsairs conquer the coastal states of
Eriador as part of this war, but divert their strength
into assisting in the Dunnish attack against Rohan
and do not penetrate farther north than Tharbad.

2758-2759 The Long Winter. Five months of icy,
freezing weather chill the hearts of all in the Shire,
Eriador, and Rohan, causing great loss of life.
Gandalf helps the Hobbits endure. In the spring,
Gondor and Rohan recover and drive off their
enemies, Rohirric cavalry liberates Tharbad from
the Haradrim as part of a campaign to punish the

2759 Saruman receives the Keys to Orthanc. He
begins to organize secret societies and spy networks
in Dunland and Eriador, reducing the influence of
Sauron’s agents,

2760-2800 Local Eriadoran forces, aided by the
Rangers of the North and by Saruman the White’s
agents, organize revolts and drive the Corsairs from
their bases along the coasts.

2850 Gandalf enters Dol Guldur and this time
discovers that Sauron is the Necromancer.

2911 The Fell Winter. Rivers freeze, including the
Brandywine. White Wolves roam Eriador,

2912 Unprecedented floods following the Fell Winter
destroy the Great Bridge and devastate Tharbad
(which is abandoned),

2928-2950 Agents of both Sauron and Saruman
an effort to infiltrate the Rangers. Saruman’s spies
gradually win out, and the Dark Lord’s best chance
to learn of an heir to the Line of Isildur is lost.

2931 Aragorn II (Strider) is born.

2933 Aragorn is taken to Rivendell for tutoring and
protection; his royal heritage is kept secret until
such time as the traitors in the Ranger organization
are discovered.

2941 Quest of Erebor. Gandalf and Thorin
Oakenshield, the heir of Durin’s Line, hire Bilbo
Baggins for the expedition. Bilbo acquires the One
Ring, but does not realize its significance. Bard slays
Smaug when the Dragon assails Lake-town, Later,
the Battle of Five Armies takes place around Dale
and Erebor. There the Orc-tribes and Wolves of the
North are vanquished. The White Council drives
Sauron from Dol Guldur, ending his minimal
interest in Eriador at a crucial time.

2942 Bilbo returns to the Shire with the Ring of

2949 Gandalf and Balin the Dwarf visit Bilbo in the
2951 Sauron openly declares himself and rebuilds
Barad-dûr. At Rivendell, Elrond reveals to Aragorn
his ancestry and gives him the sacred shards of
Narsil, Elendil’s enchanted sword.

2953 Last meeting of the White Council. Saruman is
alienated and his agents in Eriador gradually begin
to operate against the Rangers, allowing him to
secretly gather an independent military force that
includes Orcs bred in the Underdeeps of the Misty
Mountains. Noticing Gandalf’s interest in the Shire,
Saruman sends additional spies to Bree and the

2956 Aragorn II and Gandalf meet and befriend each

2980 Aragorn and Arwen are engaged to marry.

ca. 3000 Saruman uses the Palantir of Orthanc and is
entrapped by Sauron. For the first time, Sauron
learns of the Rangers guarding the Shire.

3001 Bilbo leaves the Shire for Rivendell; the Shire
guard is doubled.

3004-3008 Gandalf visits the Shire to see Frodo.

3010 Increased Corsair activity closes off the sea
routes between Eriador and Gondor.

Timeline of Eriador

Rangers of the North Hjarandr Tbird